Friday, January 29, 2016

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The Taj Mahal Persian for "Crown of Palaces", pronounced is an ivory-white marble mausoleum on the south bank of the Yamuna river in the Indian city of Agra. It was commissioned in 1632 by the Mughal emperorShah Jahan , to house the tomb of his favourite wife, Mumtaz Mahal. The tomb is the centrepiece of a 42-acre complex, which includes a mosque and a guest house, and is set in formal gardens bounded on three sides by a crenellatedwall.
Construction of the mausoleum was essentially completed in 1643 but work continued on other phases of the project for another 10 years. The Taj Mahal complex is believed to have been completed in its entirety in 1653 at a cost estimated at the time to be around 32 million rupees, which in 2015 would be approximately 52.8 billion rupees . The construction project employed some 20,000 artisans under the guidance of a board of architects led by the court architect to the emperor, Ustad Ahmad Lahauri.
The Taj Mahal was designated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1983 for being "the jewel of Muslim art in India and one of the universally admired masterpieces of the world's heritage". Described by the Nobel laureate, Rabindranath Tagore, as "the tear-drop on the cheek of time", it is regarded by
many as the best example of 
Mughal architecture and a symbol of India's rich history. The Taj Mahal attracts 7–8 million visitors a year. In 2007, it was declared a winner of the New7Wonders of the World initiative.In 1631, Shah Jahan, emperor during the Mughal empire's period of greatest prosperity, was grief-stricken when his favorite of three wives and beloved companion, Mumtaz Mahal, a Persian princess, died during the birth of their 14th child, Gauhara Begum.Construction of the Taj Mahal began in 1632. The court chronicles of Shah Jahan's grief illustrate the love story traditionally held as an inspiration for Taj Mahal The principal mausoleum was completed in 1643 and the surrounding buildings and garden were finished about five years later.The tomb is the central focus of the entire complex of the Taj Mahal. It is a large, white marble structure standing on a square plinth and consists of a symmetrical building with an iwan  topped by a large dome and finial. Like most Mughal tombs, the basic elements are Persian in origin.
The base structure is a large multi-chambered cube with chamfered corners forming an unequal eight-sided structure that is approximately 55 metres  on each of the four long sides. Each side of the iwan is framed with a huge pishtaq or vaulted archway with two similarly shaped arched balconies stacked on either side. This motif of stacked pishtaqs is replicated on the chamfered corner areas, making the design completely symmetrical on all sides of the building. Four minarets frame the tomb, one at each corner of the plinth facing the chamfered corners. The main chamber houses the false sarcophagi of Mumtaz Mahal and Shah Jahan; the actual graves are at a lower level.The most spectacular feature is the marble dome that surmounts the tomb. The dome is nearly 35 metres high which is close in measurement to the length of the base, and accentuated by the cylindrical "drum" it sits on which is approximately 7 metres high. Because of its shape, the dome is often called an onion dome or amrud. The top is decorated with a lotus design which also serves to accentuate its height. The shape of the dome is emphasized by four smaller domed chattris placed at its corners, which replicate the onion shape of the main dome. Their columned bases open through the roof of the tomb and provide light to the interior. Tall decorative spires  extend from edges of base walls, and provide visual emphasis to the height of the dome. The lotus motif is repeated on both the chattris and guldastas. The dome and chattris are topped by a gilded finial which mixes traditional Persian and Hindustani decorative elements.
The main finial was originally made of gold but was replaced by a copy made of gilded bronze in the early 19th century. This feature provides a clear example of integration of traditional Persian and Hindu decorative elements.  The finial is topped by a moon, a typical Islamic motif whose horns point heavenward.
The minarets, which are each more than 40 metres  tall, display the designer's penchant for symmetry. They were designed as working minarets—a traditional element of mosques, used by the muezzin to call the Islamic faithful to prayer. Each minaret is effectively divided into three equal parts by two working balconies that ring the tower. At the top of the tower is a final balcony surmounted by a chattri that mirrors the design of those on the tomb. The chattris all share the same decorative elements of a lotus design topped by a gilded finial. The minarets were constructed slightly outside of the plinth so that in the event of collapse, a typical occurrence with many tall constructions of the period, the material from the towers would tend to fall away from the tomb.

Saturday, January 9, 2016

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Mahabodhi Tample

The Mahabodhi Temple a United Nations agency World Heritage website, may be a Buddhist temple in Bodh Gaya, marking the situation wherever the Buddha religious mystic, the Buddha, is claimed to own earned enlightenment. is found regarding ninety six kilometre (60 mi) from Patna, province state, India.The advanced was primarily a Mahayana website. pictures of the location embrace Padmapani, Avalokiteśvara, Vajrapani, Khasarpana, Tara, Marichi, Yamantaka, Jambhala and Vajravārāhī. pictures of Hindu deity, Mahadeva, Hindu deity and different religious writing deities also are related to the location.Traditional accounts say that, around 530 before Christ, the Buddha religious mystic, a young aristocrat World Health Organization saw the suffering of the planet and wished to finish it, reached the wooded banks of the Phalgu stream, close to town of Gaya, India. There he weekday in meditation below a pipal tree tree (Ficus religiosa or Sacred Fig) that later became referred to as the Bodhi tree. per Buddhist scriptures, when 3 days and 3 nights, Siddharta earned enlightenment and also the answers that he had wanted. in this location, Mahabodhi Temple was engineered by Emperor Ashoka in around 260 before Christ.The Buddha then spent the succeeding seven weeks at seven completely different spots within the neighbourhood meditating and considering his expertise. many specific places at the present Mahabodhi Temple relate to the traditions encompassing these seven weeks The first week was spent below the Bodhi tree.
Mahabodhi Tample

During the second week, Buddha remained standing and stared, uninterrupted, at the Bodhi tree. This spot is marked by the Animeshlocha Stupa, that is, the unblinking stupa or shrine, that is found on the north-east of the Mahabodhi Temple advanced. There stands a sculpture of Buddha together with his eyes mounted towards the Bodhi tree.The Bodhi tree at Bodhgaya is directly connected to the lifetime of the historical Buddha, the Buddha religious mystic, World Health Organization earned enlightenment or excellent insight once he was meditating thereunder. The temple was build on to the east of the Bodhi tree that is meant to be a right away descendant of the initial Bodhi Tree.According to Buddhist mythology, if no Bodhi tree grows at the location, the bottom round the Bodhi tree is void of all plants for a distance of 1 royal karīsa. Through the bottom round the Bodhi tree no being, not even AN elephant, can travel.According to the Jatakas, the navel of the planet lies at this spot, and no different place will support the load of the Buddha's attainment. Another Buddhist tradition claims that once the planet is destroyed at the top of a kalpa, the Bodhimanda is that the last spot to disappear, and can be the
Mahabodhi Tample
primary to seem once the planet emerges into existence once more. Tradition conjointly claims that a lotus can bloom there, and if a Buddha is born throughout that the new kalpa, the lotus flowers in accordance with the quantity of Buddhas expected to arise.Per legend, within the case of Siddhartha, a Bodhi tree sprang au fait the day he was born.In about 250 BCE, regarding two hundred years when Buddha earned Enlightenment, Buddhist 

Emperor Asoka visited Bodh Gaya so as to ascertain a cloister and shrine on the holy website. The new Mahabodhi temple enclosed a diamond throne (called the Vajrasana) to mark the precise spot of the Buddha's enlightenment. whereas Asoka is taken into account the Mahabodhi temple's founder, the present structure dates from the 5th–6th century. One scholar, however, considers the building "largely a nineteenth-century British archeologic Survey of Republic of India reconstruction supported what's typically believed to be AN about fifth-century structure."[citation needed] before that, there looks to own been a pointed structure maybe inbuilt regarding the second century (Kuṣāṇa period). information of it comes solely from atiny low, circa fourth century terracotta plaque found at trendy Patna. it's vital that this version doesn't have the higher terrace with the little temples within the four corners. These tiny temples, though not used per se these days, most likely mirrored bound mysterious traditions in Buddhism that were rising additional and additional into less mysterious contexts by the late fourth and early fifth century. The pointed temple most likely replaced AN open collapsible shelter that had been created round the tree and also the Asokan platform. Representations of this early temple arc found at Sanci, on the toraṇas of Stūpa I, geological dating from around twenty five before Christ, and on a relief carving from the stupa railing at Bhārhut (Fig.20), from the first Shunga amount (c. 185-c. 73 BC).Mahabodhi is one in every of the earliest Buddhist temples engineered entirely in brick that's still standing in Republic of India, from the late Gupta amount.
Mahabodhi Tample

Saturday, January 2, 2016

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Sundarbans National Park Of India
The Sundarban park  may be a park, Tiger Reserve, and a region Reserve in province, India. it's a part of the Sundarban on the Ganges Delta, and adjacent to the Sundarban Reserve Forest in Asian nation. The delta is densely lined byangiospermous tree forests, and is one amongst the most important reserves for the Panthera tigrisit's additionally home to a spread of bird, vertebrate and invertebrate species, together withthe salt-water crocodilianthe current Sundarban park was declared because the core space of Sundarban Tiger Reserve in 1973 and a life sanctuary in 1977. On four could 1984 it had beendeclared a park. The board of directors of Forest is answerable for the administration and management of Sundarban. The Principal Chief Conservator of Forests , life & Bio-Diversity & ex-officio Chief life peace officerprovince is that the senior most officer trying over the administration of the park. The Chief Conservator of Forests & Director, Sundarban regionReserve is that the body head of the park at the native level associated is motor-assisted by a Deputy Field Director and an Assistant Field Director. The park space is split into 2 ranges, overseen by vary forest officers. every vary is additional sub-divided into beats. The park additionally has floating watch stations and camps to guard the property from poachers.

The park receives assist from the government similarly because the Ministry of setting and Forestsbelow numerous set up and Non-Plan Budgets. extra funding is received below the Project Tiger from the Central Government. In 2001, a grant of US$20,000 was received as a propaedeutic help for promotion between Republic of India and Asian nation from the planet Heritage Fund.Sundarbanpark is found in between  N latitude and between  E line of longitudethe typical altitude of the park is seven.5 m higher than water level. The park is createdof fifty four tiny islands and is reticulate by many tributaries of the Ganges.The average minimum and most temperature is twenty °C and forty eight °C severallydownfall is significant withhumidness as high as eightieth because it is near the Bay of geographical region. The monsoon lasts from period to time periodwind is from the north and north-east from October to period and south west westerlies prevails from period to Sep. Storms that generally change into cyclones arcommon throughout the months of could and October.

Eco-geography, rivers and watercourses
There ar seven main rivers and numberless watercourses forming a network of channels at this body of water delta. All the rivers have a southward course towards the ocean. The eco-geography of thisspace is completely enthusiastic about the periodic event impact of 2 flow tides and 2 ebb tides occurring inside twenty four hours with a periodic event vary of 3–5 m and up to
 m intraditional spring tide, inundating the entire of Sunderban in varied depths. The periodic event action deposits silts back on the channels and raising the bed, it forms new islands and creeks contributiveto unsure geophysics.there's a good geological formation known as "Swatch of No Ground"within the Bay of geographical region between  latitude wherever, the depth of water changes suddenly from twenty m to five hundred m. This mysterious depression pushes back the silts towards south and/or additional east to make new islands.Mudflats[edit]
The Sunderban mudflats ar found at the body of water and on the deltaic islands wherever low rateof watercourse and current happens. The flats ar exposed in low tides and submerged in high tides,so being modified morphologically even in one periodic event cycle. the inside elements of the mudflats ar the correct setting for mangroves.
There ar variety of mudflats outside the Sundarbans park may be a mudflat that have the potential to be traveler spots within the Sundarbans. One will visit them and revel in the sweetness of the placethroughout tide. If one is lucky, one will see ocean Anemones, Limulus polyphemus and tiny octopus.
Flora and fauna

The coastal active delta of Sunderban at the mouth of Bay of geographical region in Asian nation, having a fancy geophysics and hydrological character with climatical hazards, includes a immensespace of angiospermous tree forests with a spread of flora and numerous fauna in an exceedinglydistinctive system. The natural setting and coastal system of this region Reserve and World Heritage website is below threat of physical disaster owing to unscientific and excessive human interferences. Conservation and environmental management set up for safeguarding this distinctivecoastal ecology and system is desperately needed.
Sunderban has achieved its name from the Sundari Trees. it's the foremost exquisite sort of tree thatar found during this space, a special reasonably angiospermous tree tree. the most feature of this tree is that it produces spikes that grow higher than from the bottom and facilitate within therespiration of the tree. throughout the season once the whole forest is water logged, the spikes rising from the bottom has their peak within the air and helps within the respiration method.
The Sundarbans forest is home to over four hundred tigers. The royal geographical region tigers have developed a singular characteristic of swimming within the saline waters, and ar noted for his or her man-eating tendencies. Tigers will be seen on the watercourse banks sunbathing betweenNovember and Feb.Apart from the Panthera tigris, fishing cats, leopard cats, macaques, wild boar, Indian gray viverrine, fox, jungle cat, flying fox, pangolin, chital, also are found in abundance within the Sundarbans.